Global R&D trends in Antimicrobial Resistance

960 528 Joaquim Campoy Rubio

Antimicrobial Resistance: A threat to global public health

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is described as the ability of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites to react against antimicrobial drugs, commonly through mutation, in order to render these ineffective –microbes are not inhibited and thereby they keep on multiplying and spreading. Thus, resistant strains of microbes emerge that are able to withstand the therapeutic effects of antibiotics, antiviral, antifungals and anthelmintics, amongst others. This natural phenomenon has been accelerated by the systematic abuse of antimicrobial drugs, and especially antibiotics, in the treatment of humans and animals.[1][2][3]   

The growth and spread of AMR potentially hinders the ability to treat common infectious diseases, resulting in higher morbidity and mortality rates, and increased healthcare costs –patients infected with antimicrobial strain-resistant bacteria, viruses, etc. are more likely to die or to suffer from severe symptoms than those with non-resistant microbes, which increases the costs of treatment and patient management.[4] 

Deaths attributable to AMR every year by 2050 (Source: The Review on Antimicrobial Resistance, 2014)

It is estimated that by the year 2050, 10 million people would die annually of AMR-related causes, and the associated economic costs might rise to 100 trillion dollars.[5]     

The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared AMR as a serious threat to global public health and has called for a coordinated intergovernmental action for its prevention and management.[6] In response, initiatives and mechanisms have been adopted within the framework of the WHO, other intergovernmental agencies and national governments, as well as the private sector and NGOs, in order to promote and fund R&D on AMR.

In order to address AMR the European Comission has identified the following R&D areas:

Prevention, detection, effective infection control and surveillance
  • Interventions that prevent the development and spread of AMR.
  • Understanding the epidemiology of AMR.
  • New IT tools for early detection of resistant pathogens in humans.
  • New eHealth solutions improving prescription practices, self-management of health, care solutions, and improve awareness of AMR.
New therapeutics and alternatives
  • New antimicrobials and alternative products for humans  as well as the repurposing of old antimicrobials or the development of new combination therapies.
  • Digital technologies supporting the development of new therapeutics and alternatives.
New preventive vaccines
  • New effective preventive vaccines for humans and animals
Novel diagnostics
  • New diagnostic tools, and in particular on-site tests in humans.
  • Use of IT solutions in developing tools for diagnosing human infections.
Other areas of research
  • Knowledge gaps on the release of resistant microorganisms and antimicrobials into the environment and their spread.
  • New tools for monitoring antimicrobials and microorganisms resistant against antimicrobials in the environment.
  • New technologies that enable efficient and rapid degradation of antimicrobials in wastewater and the environment and reduce the spread of AMR.

The WHO has published a ‘Priority Pathogens List for R&D of new antibiotics’, classifying these into three categories:

Priority 1: Critical
  • Acinetobacter baumannii
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Enterobacteriaceae
Priority 2: High
  • Enterococcus faecium
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Campylobacter
  • Salmonella spp.
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Priority 3: Medium
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Shigella spp.

Adding to this list, the European Commission establishes the priority of Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, Malaria and neglected infectious diseases.

Top pharmaceutical corporations engaging in R&D on antimicrobials

GlaxoSmithKline plc GBR Click for more information
Johnson & Johnson USA Click for more information
Merck & Co., Inc. USA Click for more information
Novartis AG CHE Click for more information
Pfizer Inc USA Click for more information
Roche Holding AG CHE Click for more information
Sanofi FRA Click for more information

Source: Access to Medicines Foundation. Antimicrobial Resistance Benchmark 2018.

Top biopharmaceutical corporations engaged in R&D on antimicrobials

Achaogen Inc. USA Click for more information
Entasis Therapeutics Inc. USA Click for more information
Melinta Therapeutics, Inc. USA Click for more information
MGB Biopharma GBR Click for more information
Motif Bio plc GBR / USA Click for more information
Nabriva Therapeutics plc IRL Click for more information
Polyphor Ltd. CHE Click for more information
Summit Therapeutics GBR Click for more information
Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals Inc. USA Click for more information
The Medicines Company USA Click for more information

Source: Access to Medicines Foundation. Antimicrobial Resistance Benchmark 2018.

Top corporations engaging in R&D on new diagnostics 

Abbot USA Click for more information
Philips NL Click for more information
Beckman Coulter USA Click for more information
Curetis N.V. DE Click for more information
Becton-Dickinson USA Click for more information
Biomerieux FR Click for more information

Sources: Longitude Prize Patent Report 2018. / Espacenet Database 

Most relevant journals

Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance Elsevier Click for more information
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy American Society for Microbiology Click for more information
Journal of Antimicrobial Therapy Oxford Academic Click for more information
The Journal of Infectious diseases Oxford Academic Click for more information
Frontiers in Microbiology Frontiers Media SA Click for more information
Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control Springer Click for more information
PLOS – Antimicrobial Resistance PLOS Click for more information

Academic Centres specialising in AMR

CARe – Antibiotic Resistance Research (University of Gothenburg) SE Click for more information
ISGlobal – Barcelona Institute for Global Health ES Click for more information
Emory Antibiotic Resistance Center (Emory University School of Medicine) USA Click for more information
Antimicrobial Resistance Center (London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine) UK Click for more information
Edinburgh Infectious Diseases (The University of Edinburgh) UK Click for more information
Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance (The University of Dundee) UK Click for more information
Institut Pasteur FR Click for more information

Centre for the Study of Antimicrobial Resistance (South African Medical Research Council)

ZA Click for more information
Antibiotic Resistance Action Center (Milken Institute School of Public Health) USA Click for information
Uppsala Antibiotic Center (Uppsala Universitet) SE Click for more information
Duke Center for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention (Duke University) USA Click for more information
Antimicrobial Research Collaborative @ Imperial (Imperial College London) UK Click for more information
University of Copenhagen Research Centre for Control of Antibiotic Resistance DK Click for more information

Research Institutions generating more articles on AMR

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (US) Click for more information
Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (ES) Click for more information
Harvard University (US) Click for more information
Institut Pasteur (FR) Click for more information
National Institutes of Health (US) Click for more information
Inserm (FR) Click for more information
University of Oxford (UK) Click for more information

Authors generating more articles on AMR

Ronald M. Jones JMI Laboratories Click for more information
Patrice Nordmann University of Fribourg Click for more information

Helio S. Sader

JMI Laboratories Click for more information

Po-Ren Hsueh

National Taiwan University Click for more information
David Livermore University of East Anglia Click for more information

Stefan Schwarz

Free University of Berlin Click for more information
Laurent Poirel University of Fribourg Click for more information
Neil Woodford Public Health England Click for more information
Frank Møller Aarestrup National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark Click for more information
Fernando Baquero Instituto Ramon y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria Click for more information
PATENT Application ID INVENTORS APPLICANT PRIORITY DATE
Application of indol-ethylene substituted quinoline derivative in preparing drug-resistance bacterium medicines

 

CN108309977

 

Lu Yujing; Li Ying; Cai Senyuan; Zheng Yuanyuan; Long Wei; Wang Cong Guangdong University of Technology 2018-05-15
Method for removing antibiotic resistance genes through ionizing irradiation

 

CN108046370 Wang Jianlong; Chu Libing Tsinghua University 2017-12-13
Methods and Systems for Detection of Antibiotic Resistance

 

US2019010534

 

Nguyen, M. M. B.; Anderson, D. L. ; Gil, J. S. ; Erickson, S. E.; Brown, M.J. Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings 2017-07-07
Methods and compositions related to stk1-targeted small molecules as antibiotic resistance breakers WO2019006459 Pancholi, V. Ohio State Innovation Foundation 2017-06-30
Antibiotic resistance breakers WO2018220365

 

 

Rahman, K. M.; Jamshidi, S.; Laws, M. B.; Nahar, K.; Sutton, J. M.; Hind, C. King’s College London, ; the UK Secretary of State for Health 2017-05-30
Paper-based assay for antimicrobial resistance

 

 

WO2018195399

 

Henry, C.S.; Boehle, K.; Geiss, B. J. Colorado State University Research Foundation, ; Henry, C.S.; Boehle, K.; Geiss, B. J. 2017-04-21
Treatment of Drug-Resistant Microbial Infections

 

US2017348253

 

O’Neil, D.; Fraser-Pitt, D. NovaBiotics Limited 2016-06-07
Methods of detection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria

 

WO2018106546

 

Geisberg, Mark Silver lake research corporation 2016-12-06
Methods and compositions for attenuating antibiotic resistance

 

WO2018085267

 

Connelly, S.; Kaleko, M. Synthetic biologics, inc 2016-11-01
Compositions, methods, systems and/or kits for detecting antimicrobial resistance in bacteria

 

WO2018005370

 

Brasso, W.B.; Turner, D. J.; Kircher, S. M.; Alrahsidi-Brooks, F. Becton, dickinson and company 2016-06-27

Source: Espacenet Database

 International

Global Antibiotic Research & Development Partnership Click for more information
CARB-X Combating Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Click for more information
AMR Centre – The UK R&D Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance Click for more information
Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance (JPIAMR) Click for more information
European & Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership Click for more information
World Alliance Against Antimicrobial Resistance Click for more information
Partnerships for Global Health – Click for more information
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Click for more information

REPAIR Impact Fund

Click for more information
SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program

 

Click for more information

 European Union

Innovative Medicines Initiative Click for more information
The InnovFin Infectious Diseases Finance Facility (IDFF) Click for more information
Joint Action Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infections Click for more information

 Europe

European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Click for more information

 United States of America

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Click for more information
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Click for more information
Drive – Transforming Health Security Click for more information

 Canada

Canadian Institutes of Health Research Click for more information

 

  United Kingdom

Medical Research Council Click for more information
National Institute for Health Research Click for more information
The Academy of Medical Sciences Click for more information
UK Government Click for more information
Antibiotic Research UK Click for more information

 Germany

German Center for Infection Research Click for more information

 The Netherlands

Netherlands Antibiotic Development Platform Click for more information

    France + Germany

German Federal Ministry of Education and French Ministry of Higher Education and Research Click for more information

AMR in the global press

Antibiotic Resistance The Independent (UK) Click for access
Drug Resistance BBC News (UK) Click for access
Drug Resistance The Guardian (UK) Click for access
The New York Times (US) Click for access

Study: Superbug genes from India found in Arctic

CNN News (US) Click for access
 Rise of drug-resistant superbugs rings alarm bells in Europe Reuters Click for access

 J&J Bets $20 Million on DNA Tool to Battle Infectious Bacteria

Bloomberg Click for access
Global News (CA) Click for access
Times of India (IN) Click for access
Bugs Vs. Superbugs: Insects Offer Promise In Fight Against Antibiotic Resistance NPR (US) Click for access

Other publications

Antibiotic Resistance News and Research News Medical Life Sciences Click for access
Novel antimicrobials and AMR Diagnostics 2019 Biocom AG Click for access
New drug resistance process found in bacteria Phys.org Click for access
Antibiotic resistance: Breakthrough study offers solution Medical News Today Click for access
Antibiotic Resistance Discover Magazine Click for access
Antibiotic Resistance News Medscape Click for access

Press release – Official Institutions

Antimicrobial Resistance European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (EU) Click for access
Latest News on AMR Centre for Disease Control (US) Click for access
News Releases on AMR World Health Organization Click for access
Press Releases 2019 Global Antibiotic Research & Development Partnership Click for access

For more information about technology surveillance on Antimicrobial Resistance, please contact us in innovacioi3pt@tauli.cat

If you are interested in technology surveillance in a different research topic, please give us your feedback here

References

[1]   «Antimicrobial resistance Fact sheet N°194». who.int. April 2014. Archived from the original on 10 March 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2015.

[2]  «About Antimicrobial Resistance – Antibiotic/Antimicrobial Resistance – CDC». www.cdc.gov. 19 September 2017. Archived from the original on 1 October 2017. Retrieved 8 September 2017.

[3] “Antimicrobial resistance – MRC”. https://mrc.ukri.org/research/initiatives/antimicrobial-resistance/.

[4] https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/antimicrobial-resistance

[5] O’neill, J. Tackling Drug Resistance Infections Globally. Review on Antimicrobial Resistance. London, England, UK. 2014.

[6] Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance – WHO”. https://www.who.int/antimicrobial-resistance/publications/global-action-plan/en/

Joaquim Campoy Rubio
Joaquim Campoy Rubio

I am an innovation projects manager at the Innovation Unit of the Parc Taulí Foundation. Graduated in law from the Universitat Pompeu Fabra de Barcelona, with an LLM in European and International Trade Law from Glasgow Caledonian University and an LLM in Intellectual Property Law from the University of Derby. I am currently completing a PHD at the University of Central Lancashire on the promotion of medical R&D on neglected diseases. Legal training and experience in legal firms specializing in IP and innovation.

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