Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women, and the leading cause of death from disease, and there is a good chance that it can be cured if it is diagnosed in a timely manner, while 75% of breast nodules are benign. , the remaining 25% can endanger your life.
What is the breast and how does it function?
Its main function is milk production for breastfeeding.
The breast is a gland consisting of lobes and lobes where milk is produced.
These lobels are joined by a series of tubes called galactophore ducts or ducts, which are responsible for bringing milk to the nipple.
We also have blood vessels to bring blood to the gland and lymphatic vessels. The latter group and form the lymph nodes. Those closest to the breast are in the armpit.
The breast is surrounded by fatty tissue to give it volume and consistency.
It is the organ that undergoes the most changes from birth to adulthood. Thanks to female hormones (estrogen and progesterone), the breast grows into puberty and is also influenced by the reproductive age during menstrual cycles. During menopause, part of the mammary gland atrophies and is replaced by fat.
The breast can be divided into 4 quadrants (parts), two upper, two lower and two internal and two external. The line that joins them is the union of quadrants.
What is Breast Cancer?
Cancer originates when a normal cell or group of cells begins to grow uncontrollably and form a malignant tumor.
Some cells are able to move elsewhere in the body through the blood or lymphatic system and generate new tumors; this process is called metastasis.
When these tumor cells are implanted in the breast we can call it breast cancer.
There are two types of breast cancer that are most common:
Infiltrating Ductal Carcinoma: It originates in the ducts through which milk flows to the nipple.
Lobular carcinoma: It originates in the cells of the lobules where milk is produced.
The degree of aggressiveness of breast cancer is variable: slow, medium and last forms of growth are observed, other very aggressive and invasive forms.
The risk factor is considered to be any situation that increases the likelihood of developing the disease.Breast cancer is predominantly in women, but it can also affect men in lower incidence.
Women with previous cancer in one breast should pay special attention to the other, since what caused the first can act on the second.
When a first-degree relative (grandmother, mother, sister) has a breast cancer, it is twice as likely to have it.
Benign breast disease can increase your risk.
Pregnancy after age 30, having first menstruation before age 10, or menopause too late are situations that increase your risk.
Age is also a risk factor as the incidence of breast cancer increases with age.
The positive gene.
When should we go to the doctor?
When breast cancer is in its early stages it does not produce any symptoms, but we must be alert for some signs:
Resizing in one of the breasts.
Alterations of the skin that covers them (ulcer, orange skin, redness, etc.)
Presence of a nodule that was not there before.
Presence of a nodule in the armpit.
Nipple in, sudden collapse.
Before assuming you have a serious illness, you should wait for the results of all the tests.
What can we do to detect breast cancer early?
We cannot prevent the appearance of breast cancer, but we can delay and / or stop its growth, increasing the chances of its healing. Most breast cancer cases occur in women who did not have risk factors, so it is important to do the following:
Periodic gynecological examinations.
Control mammograms (from 40 to 70 years old).
Breast self-examination is a technique that involves the observation and palpation of the woman's breasts. It is used to detect the appearance of any alteration in the shape or normal size of the breasts and, in this case, to be able to treat it early.
The technique is very simple, you can do it yourself and it will help you get to know your body better and know how to take care of it. In this way you will learn what the normal shape, size and consistency characteristics of your breasts are and it will be easier to see if there is any change in them.
The first few times you may not feel comfortable or know how to do it correctly. Don't worry - it's a matter of practice, and as you repeat the technique you'll be doing better. Here's how breast self-examination can be performed.
Who should do a self-examination?
It is advisable that all women over 25 be self-scanned.
When should we do it?
We will do it once a month, on the 5th or 6th menstrual day.
In women with menopause, set a reference day per month.
For easy handling it is advisable to use soap or cream during or after the shower.
How should we do it?
To make a good self-exploration we will do it in two steps:
Types of tests
Types of punctures
Cytology (PAAF) is a fine needle puncture that involves aspirating cells from the lesion to be sent for analysis or cyst emptying.
When is it indicated?
The test is indicated in the following cases:
When it comes to emptying a cyst, the cyst is very large or the lesion contains thick fluid.
When in doubt if the lesion seen on the mammogram concedes with the cyst found on the ultrasound.
When the lymph nodes are swollen and swollen, if they are visible by ultrasound.
How do I prepare?
No preparation for cytology is needed.
A thin needle and syringe will be taken in the PAAF, then disinfected and the lesion localized. We look for the entry area to puncture, then apply a very cold anesthetic fluid (not to notice the puncture) and puncture until the injury. Once inside the lesion it will be aspirated to be emptied in the case of cysts, and if there are other types of lesions or nodes, a small sample will be taken for analysis.
What will you notice?
All you may notice is the cold of the liquid, the punctures and the sensation of the needle inside, which can cause some discomfort.
What do we see?
As will always see the structure of the breast plus the injury we want to analyze, and how the needle enters the injury; this way we will have the certainty that we are removing from the area we want to analyze.
Risks and complications
There is no risk or complication.
The only annoyance that it can cause is a little pain after being punched.
Once we are done, what do we do?
Once we are done puncturing it will be sent for analysis, as long as it is not a emptying of a cyst that will be thrown away without analysis, as these are benign (except if it contains blood which is the only case where 'we will send to the lab).
A mammogram may be requested as a complementary test for confirmation if the image we see on the mammogram matches the image on the ultrasound. This will be the case with cysts.
This query is located inside the information room where you will find a space that guarantees privacy.
We have a computer and telephone with answering machine that answers calls 24 hours:
Tel +93 745 82 06
All ladies can call them for any questions they may have regarding the results they receive from mammograms and they will then be referred by the nurse for no more than 24 hours. Tasks that are developed:
The nurse is in contact with all patients who need to be re-referred for additional tests, such as: ultrasound, echo biopsies, stereotactic biopsies and who are part of the breast cancer early detection program.
It offers information on the different complementary tests.
Reports the results of the biopsies performed.
It clarifies doubts about the results of mammographic controls.
Why do they recite me?
When we do a screening mammogram, the report we expect to receive is "normal." This is understandable because there are no symptoms that cause us to suspect any alteration, and when we scan, we have not noticed anything abnormal.
We need to be aware that at the time of the recitation we cannot say if there is any anomaly: we can only report what the radiologist has seen in assessing the mammogram. We know that the affected person is very distressed, but we should not associate "recitation" with any malignant injury, but that it is sometimes necessary to undergo a series of tests that complement the study of mammography, in order to know exactly the identity of an image or an injury.
If we are recited for a new mammogram it is for an additional screening that will let us know if the image displayed on the mammogram is an injury or a false image. Practicing an additional screening is a localized mammogram to make sure that we are really seeing an injury.
We may also be referred for an ultrasound scan, which can confirm, among other things, whether a nodule is solid or liquid (cyst) and this may be enough to make a diagnosis.
In some cases the only way to remain calm and know exactly the origin of the lesion is to perform a biopsy of the lesion.
Does performing a biopsy mean that an injury is malignant?
No, we do it because we cannot know for sure if it is, and a biopsy tells us if the lesion is malignant or benign.
From the time of the recitation until the diagnosis and definitive treatment is established, significant anxiety is experienced in women. To improve the quality of care and reduce anxiety, we will consider the following:
Communicate the recitations at least 48 hours in advance.
Inform in a simple way so that the person concerned understands it.
Coordinate all circuits to maximize time-out.
If we weigh the anxiety caused by recitation with the benefit of detecting small lesions, even though they have very good resolution, there is no doubt that we must continue to carry out the controls indicated in each case, because today nowadays it is the only prevention measure available.