Blood group, Rh and Coombs direct to offspring of Rh negative mother
Rh is a blood factor - some people are Rh positive and others are Rh positive. Is it you, future mom, Rh positive? Then you can skip all the information below.
Rh incompatibility: Pregnant Rh negative and Rh positive baby
If the mother is Rh negative and the baby is Rh positive, there may be some incompatibility issues. This is because if there is an exchange between the blood of the baby and the mother, the Rh factor of the first will pass into the maternal blood, which does not have this factor and, therefore, is unknown. This would cause the mother's body to start producing antibodies against this Rh factor that would attack the baby's blood.
That is why, during pregnancy monitoring, if you are Rh negative, you will be given an "anti-Dammaglobulin" that will prevent the formation of antibodies.
When is this gammaglobulin given?
At 28 weeks of pregnancy, you will be given a dose of this gammaglobulin, and if the baby is Rh-positive (this will be known after birth), another dose will be given.
There are other situations where the administration of this gammaglobulin may be necessary: whenever there is a risk of mother-baby blood exchange, such as if an amniocentesis or a corion biopsy are to be performed.
Metabolopathy screening tests: the "heel test"
The neonatal early detection program is a prevention program aimed at early identification of infants affected by certain diseases and proper diagnosis and treatment to avoid sequelae and complications and to ensure a better quality of life.
During the first days of life, the newborn is screened for congenital diseases, disorders without visible symptoms but which, in the long term, without taking action, can cause alterations in their development.
To avoid this, the so-called "heel test" is performed: after 48 hours of life, a small puncture is performed on the baby's heel. If the result is positive for any of the illnesses, the family is urgently alerted and they are told how to act and where to go for the most appropriate treatment and monitoring in each case.
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Ultrasound scan of the hip in healthy infants at risk for congenital hip dysplasia
Congenital hip dislocation is a congenital hip joint disorder caused by the abnormal development of all components of the hip joint.
It is a multifactorial disorder:
- Genetic factors: mainly demonstrated by their family incidence, and also their higher frequency in girls.
- Hormonal factors: Response to maternal hormones during pregnancy that cause ligament laxity.
- Ligament laxity - Relates to familial ligament laxity.
How is it diagnosed?
Through some maneuvers performed by the pediatrician in the first days of life. If this physical examination is doubtful or the baby has an additional risk of congenital hip dislocation, a hip ultrasound is performed between the fourth and sixth week of life.
Universal screening for early detection of hearing loss
Congenital hearing loss (deafness) can be detected in the first days of a baby's life, so that he can begin treatment early.
Why is it important for you to be tested?
- Knowing if your baby has deafness is difficult. At times it seems to respond to sounds, even if your hearing is not working well.
- Deafness in infants is not uncommon, but its consequences are significant. A child who does not hear has great problems learning to speak and communicate, which will affect all his subsequent activity.
- The sooner you know if your child has hearing loss, the sooner he or she will be treated and the better their development will be.
What test will your child perform?
A special technique is used to assess the hearing capacity of babies when they are calm and even asleep. Only a headset will be placed around each ear, or a small device on the outer ear canal of both ears.
What can be the results?
- If the test goes well: Your baby is feeling good and they will be stamped in your Child Health Document (they will give you Maternity) so that your pediatrician knows that they have been tested.
- If the results are not as expected: It does not mean that the baby really has a hearing loss; it simply indicates that further study is needed and that is why the test will be repeated before the end of the month.