Hospital of Sabadell

Medication in peritoneal dialysis

Phosphorus collectors

Phosphorus collectors

When the kidneys don't work, phosphorus builds up in your body. Phosphorus is a substance that must be within certain limits in the blood (it is bad that it is high, but also that it is low).
 

Commercial Names

MASTICAL, ROYEN, CAOSINA, OSVAREN, PEPSAMAR, Renagel, FOSRENOL.
 

Symptom

It's normal not to notice anything, high phosphorus for a long time gives no symptoms. It can sometimes cause severe and annoying itching. Over time, having high phosphorus can cause circulatory and heart problems.
 

How they act and how to take it

Phosphorus collectors bind to the phosphorus that foods carry in the digestive tract. That is why it is so important that they are always taken during or immediately after meals. It is useless to take the phosphorus captor long after eating, by then the phosphorus will already be in the blood.
 

How to help with diet

Many foods needed for nutrition carry phosphorus. The more we avoid the foods rich in phosphorusThe fewer pills you will need. Always avoid cola and nuts, and do not abuse meats, fish, eggs and dairy products.

Potassium collectors

Potassium collectors

When the kidneys fail, potassium accumulates in your body. Potassium is a substance that must be within blood limits. It's so bad that it's high (hyperkalemia), like it's low (hypokalemia).
 

Commercial Names

REINSTALLATION.
 

Symptom

It is normal not to notice anything, high potassium for a long time gives no symptoms. When levels are too high, it can endanger your life. Symptoms include: weakness, fatigue, palpitations, paralysis, and paresthesias (tingling, numbness, or stuttering). There may be chest pain and progress to cardiac arrest.
 

How they act and how to take it

Potassium uptake binds to the potassium in the digestive tract. That is why it is so important that they are always taken during or immediately after meals. Do not take double doses to make up for missed doses. It is taken dissolved in water (not with juice due to its high potassium content).
 

How to help with diet

Many foods needed for nutrition carry potassium. The more we avoid foods high in potassium, the less risk we have for hyperkalemia. It is advisable to always avoid nuts and cocoa products, such as chocolate, do not abuse fruits and vegetables, and follow dietary recommendations to reduce the amount of potassium in foods.

Hypotensors

Hypotensors

Due to high blood pressure, the heart is enlarged and the coronary vessels may be obstructed, with the risk of angina pectoris or myocardial infarction.
 

Commercial Names

Doxazosin, atenolol, bisoprolol, EMCONCOR, COROPRES, amlodipine, diltiazem, nicardipine, Adalat, MANIDON, captopril, DONEKA, PARAPRES.
 

Symptom

Generally, high blood pressure does not show any symptoms. When blood pressure reaches very high levels, headache may occur.
 

How they act and how to take them

Medications for tension act in different ways. Some remove excess water and salt from the body, others make the heart beat slower or relax and widen the blood vessels; Sometimes the combination of several drugs to regulate tension works best.

It is very important to take the medication to regulate blood pressure; even if the tension is OK, if you stop taking the medication soon it will rise again.
 

How to help with diet

Reduce salt in meals and avoid foods high in sodium (cured cheeses, sausages, etc.).
In no case replace ordinary salt with diet salts, as they are usually potassium salts.
In case of obesity, it is advisable to reduce weight.
Avoid alcohol and tobacco.

Erythropoietin

Erythropoietin

Reduction of red blood cells results in anemia. This is because the kidneys cannot produce a basic substance for their production, erythropoietin.
 

Commercial Names

NEORECORMON, MIRCERA, ARANESP, EPREX, EPOEN, BINOCRIT.
 

Symptom

Tiredness, muscle weakness, pallor of the skin, sleep problems, headache.

If left untreated, anemia can worsen and force the heart to work harder. You will also notice leg pain when walking due to lack of irrigation and a low blood pressure that predisposes to dizziness.
 

How they act and how to take it

Erythropoietin (EPO) should be stored in the refrigerator.

EPO stimulates the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow. With the EPO you will achieve a higher quality of life:

  • increases your ability to exercise.
  • improves appetite.
  • improves sexual activity.


The EPO is given in the form of a subcutaneous injection. It will be yourself or a family member / caregiver who punctures you (nursing will teach you how to prick). The dose and frequency will be decided by your nephrologist based on the results of your tests. The EPO will be provided to you by your hospital pharmacy.

Image of the human body with areas marked in red suitable for puncturing EPO

Iron

Iron

Renal failure causes anemia. This anemia is corrected with Erythropoietin (EPO). But you may also need to take iron supplements to correct it.
 

Commercial Names

  • Oral Iron: FERO GRADUMET, TARDYFERON.
  • Intravenous iron: INJURY, VENOFER, HERBAL.
     

Symptom

Symptoms of anemia are: tiredness, weakness, dizziness, difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, among others.
 

How they act and how to take it

Iron is important for the production of hemoglobin, the hormone that carries oxygen inside the red blood cells. If you take iron pills, you should know that it is best to fast. Taking iron in pill also causes your stools to turn black. Iron in pills is usually not enough for people with kidney failure, so depending on the results of your tests, it may be necessary to administer iron in a vein. Generally it will be administered taking advantage of your control visit to the hospital, taking advantage of the same puncture of the analytical one.
 

How to help with diet

Iron-rich foods include red meats, liver, turkey, rabbit, and green leafy vegetables like spinach.

Vitamins

Vitamins

Vitamins are essential to us. The body does not produce vitamins, it obtains them from food. In renal failure there are some restricted food groups and this can lead to a vitamin deficiency. In addition to the dialysis vitamins are also lost. Some vitamins are essential for the correction of anemia.
 

Commercial Names

  • Folic acid: ACFOL, BIALFOLI, LEDERFOLIN.
  • Vitamin B12: BECOCYME C FORTE, HYDROXIL B1 B6 B12.
  • Vitamin D: ROCALTROL, PARICALCITOL.
     

How they act and how to take them

Do not take vitamins that your doctor did not prescribe, they may contain vitamins or minerals that will hurt you.
 

How to help with diet

Take foods rich in vitamin B12 and folic acid such as eggs, fish and liver.

Laxatives

Laxatives

Constipation can make it difficult for the peritoneal catheter to function properly. The pressure exerted by the peritoneal fluid on the abdomen slows down the bowel movement. Medications you take for your illness, decreased dietary fiber due to restriction of fruits and vegetables and not exercising can also cause constipation.
 

Commercial Names

DUPHALAC.
 

Symptom

More distended abdomen, difficulty in the drainage of the peritoneal fluid.
 

How they act and how to take them

Lactulose laxatives, which are the most recommended for renal failure, increase the water content in your stool, making them softer. The goal is to make three daily stools of soft consistency.

Ideally, they should be taken in a single dose in the morning. If the laxative is drunk it can be dissolved in water or infusions. If you take PLANTABEN, you should take it with water. Better after meals (before you may feel satiated). It is also advisable not to lie down immediately after taking it.

Laxative should be prescribed by your doctor, there are laxatives that are harmful for people with kidney failure.
 

How to help with diet

It can help regulate your bowel rhythm:

  • Eating foods high in fiber.
  • Exercising.

 

Precautions with medication

Check that the medication is prescribed. Sometimes they may have different names, but the composition is correct.

Keep an eye on the expiration date. Do not take any expired medication.

If you miss a dose, do not take a double dose.

Check:

  • The amount you should take.
  • For how long and how many hours should you take it.
  • How to take it (during or outside meals, etc.).

Do not take any medicine without talking to your doctor. Medicines that work in some people can be detrimental to you.

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