Keep in mind that nutrition is an element fundamental in the treatment of renal insufficiency. Getting it right and putting it into practice is, in short, improve their quality of life.
Properly following the recommendations will allow:
- Maintain, through a balanced diet, the proper nutritional status.
- Reduce the risk of complications between dialysis sessions (hyperkalemia, excessive weight gain ...).
- Avoid or reduce the appearance of bone and metabolic disorders.
- Improve the results of the Hemodialysis sessions.
- Better tolerate Hemodialysis sessions.
- Maintain the body in the best possible conditions for a future transplant.
- Make a diet as enjoyable as possible without unnecessary restrictions.
This group comprises pasta (macaroni, spaghetti, noodles, ...), rice, bread, potatoes and cereals. They are the main source of energy in the body so they must be the basis of our diet. We will not limit the amount but the intake of those who are rich in fiber due to its high content of phosphorus and potassium.
People with diabetes, obesity, and / or hypertriglyceridemia should have special considerations in this food group.
Pasta and rice when boiling absorb water; it is advisable to leave the pasta "al dente" so that it contains as little water as possible, and the rice without passing.
Carbohydrates not recommended
Soy and its derivatives
Oats and muesli
This group is made up of meat, fish, eggs and legumes. Proteins are an essential part of the body that has, among other things, the structural function of tissue formation, maintenance and repair. Some of them, along with vitamins, are lost through the dialysis process. Foods that are high in protein also tend to be in phosphorus, so we will limit some of them.
It is recommended to eat foods of this group 2 times a day. Eggs 2 times a week. Legumes occasionally (2 times a month).
When the boiled legumes are cooked, this should be done after soaking, the so-called double cooking system, which consists of putting two pots with plenty of boiling water and, in the middle of cooking, changing the legumes. When finished, the water should be discarded.
Birds (chicken, turkey, ...)
Egg (preferably white)
Low-fat meats (pork loin, rabbit, beef tenderloin ...)
Serrano ham / chicken / turkey
Protein not recommended
Smoked fish and salted fish
Shellfish, crustaceans and molluscs
Meat or fish concentrates (Avecrem, Starlux, ...)
Dairy products are a good source of protein, but they are high in calcium and phosphorus so we will have to restrict their consumption. Phosphorus is a mineral that is involved in the formation and maintenance of bones. Phosphorus and calcium must be balanced in the body, as their abundance or lack affects the absorption capacity of the other.
Excess phosphorus results in lower calcium assimilation. When this imbalance occurs and the phosphorus is high, long-term alterations in bone composition occur with the progressive deterioration of the bones. One symptom of hyperphosphoremia is pruritus (itching).
It is difficult to correct this imbalance. Keep in mind that phosphorus rich foods are also calcium. That is why your doctor usually prescribes the use of phosphorus chelators, drugs that prevent their absorption.
It is advisable to drink ½ glass of milk daily, as well as eat 2 or 3 yoghurt a week
Recommended dairy products
Cured and creamy cheeses
Chocolate ice cream
Potassium is a mineral necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous and muscular systems. In Renal Failure potassium from the diet is not properly eliminated.
If potassium levels are high (hyperkalemia), disturbances occur, especially at the heart level. The hyperkalemia presents some initial symptoms such as tremors, weakness in the legs. If left unchecked, you are at high risk for major cardiac abnormalities that can lead to cardiorespiratory arrest.
Fruits are made up of simple carbohydrates, vitamins, mineral salts and fiber. Among these mineral salts is high potassium, so we must significantly reduce its intake.
It is recommended to eat 1 piece of fruit a day
Recommended fruits (poor in potassium)
Pear, Apple, Apple / pear compote, Watermelon, Syrup fruits (without broth), Lemon
Limited fruits (moderate in potassium)
Apricot, persimmons, cherries, plum, pomegranate, strawberry, figs / brevas, tangerine, mango, peach, melon, blackberry, orange, nectarine, medlar, pineapple, grapefruit, white grape
Recommended fruits (high in potassium)
Banana, Kiwi, Avocado, Black grape, Commercial juices, Coconut, Dates, Nuts, Olives, Syrup liquid
They are rich in vitamins, minerals and fiber, and especially potassium. There is a special preparation that will reduce our potassium intake. Vegetables in contact with water lose potassium.
When it comes to raw vegetables, either in salads, or for baking or stews, they should be chopped (small pieces) and soaked for about 8 to 12 hours by changing the water at least 2 times.
When the boiled vegetables are cooked, the so-called double-cooking system must be done after soaking, which consists in putting two pots with plenty of boiling water and, in the middle of cooking, changing the pot vegetables. When finished, the water should be discarded.
It is recommended to eat 1 medium plate of cooked vegetables or one salad a day
Recommended vegetables (poor in potassium)
Aubergine, Canned asparagus (without broth), Onion, Fresh asparagus, Lettuce,
Cucumber, Green pepper, Red pepper
Limited vegetables (moderate in potassium)
Sweet potato, Cress, Broccoli, Pumpkin, Cabbage, Cabbage / Cabbage, Soap without potatoes, Leek, Radishes, Cauliflower, Endives, Escarole, Fresh beans, Green beans, Turnips, Beets, Fresh tomato, Carrot
Recommended vegetables (high in potassium)
Artichoke, Brussels sprouts, Zucchini, Mushrooms / Mushrooms, Chard, Borage, Thistle, Spinach, Shredded or fried tomato, Vegetable pickles
Sugar and sweets
Sugars are fast-absorbing carbohydrates. Avoid consuming them, especially chocolate and cocoa because of their high potassium content.
Pastry and confectionery
Chocolate and cocoa
Fats and oils
Some of them must be present in the diet (essential fatty acids) because the body cannot make them. We must moderate the consumption of those of animal origin present in meats, fish, eggs, sausages, butter, etc., as they are associated with cardiovascular diseases due to their high cholesterol content.
Those of vegetable origin (oils) are preferable because they are cardioprotective and also help with intestinal transit.
Recommended fats and oils
Extra virgin olive oil
Sunflower oil and seeds
Recommended oils and fats
Butter and pork bacon
Agua y sal
El sodium (salt) is a component of common salt and is found naturally in foods. Its function is to retain water inside the body and its excess produces thirst, fluid retention and increased blood pressure.
El Water it is the main component of all living things. Under normal conditions, a balance is maintained between the water that is ingested and the one that is eliminated through the urine, sweating, breathing ... In renal failure, due to the inability to eliminate excess fluid in the urine, this fluid accumulates causing :
- increases in blood pressure
- edema (swelling in the legs, face ...)
- in more severe cases, acute pulmonary edema
An alarming symptom is difficulty breathing, and if this occurs, you must urgently go to the hospital.
To avoid complications and better tolerate hemodialysis sessions, it is important that between 1,5 and 2 kg of fluid measured at body weight not accumulate between sessions.
We remind you that patients on a hemodialysis program cannot properly eliminate the fluid they take, so they should be limited.
An approximate daily fluid intake of 500cc + amount of residual urine is recommended. Liquids are considered: Water, infusions, milk, juices, jellies, ice cream, soups, broths, soft drinks and carbonated drinks.
Taulí salt should be removed.
Toast or biscuits has less water than daily bread.
On hot days take ice cubes with a few drops of lemon to reduce the feeling of thirst.
To take the medicines use as little water as possible.
Salty foods and industrial foods should be avoided.
Instead of salt they can be used as seasonings, lemon vinegar, oregano ...
Dietary salts (rich in potassium)
Bread or biscuits with salt
Canned or canned food
Refreshments with gas
Baking drinks (Vichy Catalan)
Broth pills (Avecrem)
Commercial Sauces (Ketchup, Mayonnaise, Mustard)