Global R & D Trends in 3D Printing

Global R & D Trends in 3D Printing 640 336 Edu Soler

3D printing (3DP) is a relatively new, rapidly expanding method of manufacturing that found numerous applications in healthcare. Today, it is rapidly expanding: almost every week new printers and printing materiales offering novela Possibilities as well as new exciting applications appear.

How it works 3DP?
3D printing is a methodology that combines conventional imaging modalidad (CT, MRI, Ultrasound) processed with advanced softwares. The objective is to transform a medical image in a printable file and finally print it.
3D printing requires three procedures; Image Acquisition, Image Processing and three dimensional printing. The common errores in the process are; Under-segmentation skills, sub-optimal transformation into STL file, Sub-optimal image source and Inappropriate 3D printer choice.

Este review pretende tocar en vista de los mostos promising trends en diferentes médica fields y los grandes stakeholders de los business worldwide.

MEDICAL TRENDES

mandibular prognathism

¿Qué?
Precise Planning of Orthognathic Surgery - Alveolar arches of the maxilar and mandíbula of the modelos were replaced with Orthodontic dental cast modelos. Temporomandibular joints of the modelos were fixed with Kirschner wire.

¿Por qué?
To increase of accuracy in Orthodontic surgery and prevention of condylar malpositioning and condylar sag by using life-sized, 3D modelos of our patients preoperatively.

Mavili ME, Canter HI, Saglam-Aydinatay B, Kamaci S, Kocadereli I. Use de tres-dimensionales médicos modelos de métodos para precisa planificación de orthognathic surgery. J Craniofac Surg

Maxillary retrusión

¿Qué?
Surgical planning, three-dimensional modelo surgery and preshaped implantes in treatment of bilateral craniomaxillofacial post-traumático deformidad.

¿Por qué?
Accuracy and efficiency and good therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of bilateral craniomaxillofacial post-traumático deformidad.

Cui J, Chen L, Guan X, Ye L, Wang H, Liu L. Surgical planning, three-dimensional modelo surgery and preshaped implantes in treatment of bilateral craniomaxillofacial post-traumático deformidad. J Oral Maxillofac Surg

Orbital floor fracturas

¿Qué?
Modelos can be used as templates to form titanium mesh implantes, which are then used in the reconstrucción of orbital floor defects.

¿Por qué?
Make it easier the process of fitting and aligning implantes difficult, time consuming and operador dependiente.

Kozakiewicz M, Elgalal M, Loba P, et al. Clinical application of 3D pre-bent titanium implantes for orbital floor fracturas.

cerebral tumores

¿Qué?
Biomodelling in complejo surgery in patients with craneofacial, maxilofacial, skull base cervical spinal pathology.

¿Por qué?
Better communication with patient and other surgeons, help diagnosis and operative planning, and surgeons tono rehearse procedures readily.

D'Urso PS, Barker TM, Earwaker WJ, et al. Stereolithographic biomodelling in cráneo-maxilofacial surgery: a prospective trial.

Maxilliary canine impaction

¿Qué?
Diagnosis y treatment planning de maxillary canine impaction mediante computed tomography combined with rapid prototyping.

¿Por qué?
Treating año impacted maxillary canine requires Identifying its exact position; this can ponga a challenge to both orthodontists and oral surgeons.

Faber J, Berto PM, Cuaresma M. Rapid prototyping as a tool for diagnosis and treatment planning for maxillary canine impaction.

Enfermedades del oído medio

¿Qué?
A high-fidelity, inexpensive middle ear simulator could be created. Experto otologists will rate the SMS as having a high degree of realism in terms of shape and mechanical properties of the human middle ear Affected by otosclerosis.

¿Por qué?
Inexpensive surgical middle ear simulator ENHANCE surgical training for novice surgeons.

Monfared A, Mitteramskogler G, Gruber S, Salisbury JK Jr, Stämpfli J, Blevins NH. High-fidelity, inexpensive surgical middle ear simulator.

Temporal bone defecto

¿Qué?
Prototyping of temporal bone for surgical training and medical education.

¿Por qué?
Scarce media of temporal buenas for trainee.

Suzuki M, Ogawa Y, KAWANA A, Hagiwara A, Yamaguchi H, Ono H. Rapid prototyping of temporal bone for surgical training and medical education.

facial Cleft

¿Qué?
Mirror técnico y rápido prototyping techniques estaban para designar y prefabricar el individualizado template para la preoperativa repair de orbital inferior wall y maxillary anterior wall defects.

¿Por qué?
Improve surgical accuracy.

Wang J, Liu JF, Liu W, Wang JC, Wang SY, Gui L. Application of computer techniques in repair of oblique facial Cleft with outer-table calvarial bone Grafts.

Reposición osteotomy of zygoma

¿Qué?
Significando reduction in operative time with prototyping in craneofacial surgery: using a positioning guide after zygomatic osteotomy.

¿Por qué?
The management of post-traumático deformity in the midface región pones challenges for the maxilofaciales surgeon.

Herlin C, Koppe M, Bézier JL, Gleizal A. Rapid prototyping in craneofacial surgery: using a positioning guide after zygomatic osteotomy-a case report.

Tooth cavity preparation

¿Qué?
Operative Dentistry Education - Dentistry, where 40 students used 3Dprinted modelos versus standard schematics and photographs for cavity preparation.

¿Por qué?
Many students struggle for visual recognition. This is because 2D images and ilustraciones make it more difficult to identify and view the ángulos and walls of cavity preparation; also, when the prepare technique is demonstrated by a teacher in real teeth, the students 'field of vision is limited, making it difficult for them to learn.

Soares PV, de Almeida Milito G, Pereira FA, et al. Rapid prototyping and 3D-virtual modelos for operative Dentistry education in Brazil. J Dent Educ

Auricular carcinoma restoration

¿Qué?
Designing and manufacturing tienen auricular prosthesis.

¿Por qué?
Reducir varios preliminares procedures currently used to create en auricular prosthesis.

Liacouras P, Garnes J, Roman N, Petrich A, Grant GT. Designing and manufacturing an auricular prosthesis using computed tomography, 3-dimensional photographic imaging, and additive manufacturing: a clinical report. J Prosthet Dent 2011; 105 (2): 78-82.

Bionic ear

¿Qué?
Bionic ear Composed of living cells and electronic nanoparticles.

¿Por qué?
The printed ear exhibidos enhanced Auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biológico and nanoelectrónica functionalities vía 3D printing.

Mannoor MS, Jiang Z, James T, et al. 3D printed bionic ears. Nano Lett 2013; 13 (6): 2634 a 2639

cerebral Aneurysm

Wurm G, Tomancok B, Pogady P, Holl K, Trenkler J. Cerebrovascular stereolithographic biomodeling for Aneurysm surgery: technical note. J Neurosurg 2004; 100 (1): 139-145

¿Qué?
Visualization method was used in surgery for cerebral Aneurysm. Using the rapid prototyping technology.

¿Por qué?
Las biomodelas estaban usando para diagnosis, operativo planning, surgical simulation, instrucción para las experiencias de neurosurgeones, y sufriente educación.

Biomodeling in supracellar mass

Radiographics. November-December 2015, 35 (7): 1965-1988.

¿Qué?
Binder Jetting 3D-printed modelo Focusin donde suprasellar mass (green).

¿Por qué?
Relaciones between the critical arterial anatomy and bone.

vascular modelos

Radiographics. November-December 2015, 35 (7): 1965-1988.

¿Qué?
Three-dimensional printed vascular modelos.

¿Por qué?
Provide unprecedented anatómico and volumétrico detail and, in addition to assisting in potential treatment planning, can noninvasively provide details needed to determine a surgical oro nonsurgical approach for a complejo lesión.

Cerebrovascular Aneurysm repair

Wurm G, Lehner M, Tomancok B, Kleiser R, Nussbaumer K. Cerebrovascular biomodeling for Aneurysm surgery: simulation-based training by means of rapid prototyping technologies. Surg Innov 2011; 18 (3): 294-306

¿Qué?
Creation of a solid skull and the cerebral vessels in different materiales tono simulate the real Aneurysm when clipped.

¿Por qué?
Simulation-based training for Aneurysm repair.

Tumores espinales

Paiva WS, Amorim R, Bezerra DA, Masini M. Aplication of the stereolithography technique in complejo spine surgery. Arq neuropsiquiatra 2007; 65 (2B): 443-445

¿Qué?
Surgical training as a learning process for young surgeons oro for Ewing 's sarcoma in the cervical spine.

¿Por qué?
As a result, it is easier for the surgeon to understand the complexity of the case and plan the approach before año surgical procedure.

Structural oro congenital heart disease

Jacobs S, Grunert R, Mohr FW, Falk V. 3D-imaging of cardiac structures using 3D heart modelos for planning in heart surgery: a preliminary study. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2008; 7 (1): 6-9.

¿Qué?
Anatomical correct 3D rapid prototyping modelo (RPT) for patients with complejo heart disease and Altered geometry of the ATRIA oro ventrículos.

¿Por qué?
The use of the 3D rapid prototyping modelo (RPT-modelo) during resection of ventricular Aneurysm and malignos cardiaco tumores may facilitate the surgical procedure due to better planning and improved orientation.

aórtica ulceration

Kim MS, Hansgen AR, Wink O, Quaife RA, Carroll JD. Rapid prototyping: a new tool in understanding and treating structural heart disease. Circulation 2008; 117 (18): 2388 hasta 2394.

¿Qué?
Understanding and treating structural heart disease.

¿Por qué?
Current 2-dimensional imaging techniques remain limited both in their ability to represent the complejo 3-dimensional relationships presente in structural heart disease and in their capacity to adequately facilitate often complejo correctiva procedures.

Structural oro congenital heart disease?

Riesenkampff E, Rietdorf U, Wolf I, et al. The practical clinical value of three-dimensional modelos of complejo congenitally malformed hearts. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2009; 138 (3): 571-580

¿Qué?
Three-dimensional modelos of complejo congenitally malformed hearts.

¿Por qué?
Current imaging techniques, however, do not always provide all the necessary anatómico information in a user-friendly fashion.

Aórtica valve replacement

Sodian R, Schmauss D, Markert M, et al. Three-dimensional printing creado modelos for surgical planning of aórtica valve replacement after previous Coronary bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg 2008; 85 (6): 2105 a 2108.

¿Qué?
Surgical planning and intraoperative orientation with 3DP for aórtica valve replacement after previous Coronary bypass grafting.

¿Por qué?
Resternotomy for aórtica valve replacement in patients with previous Coronary artery bypass grafting and an internal mammary artery Graft may be a surgical problem.

Pulmonary valve stent implantation

Schievano S, Migliavacca F, Coats L, et al. Percutaneous Pulmonary valve implantation based on rapid prototyping of right ventricular outflows tract and Pulmonary trunk from MR fecha. Radiology 2007; 242 (2): 490-497

Que?
Percutaneous Pulmonary valve implantation based on rapid prototyping of right ventricular outflows tract and Pulmonary trunk.

¿Por qué?
Refine the selection of patients for percutaneous Pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI).

Simulations of endovascular treatment

Kono K, Shintani A, Okada H, Terada T. Preoperative simulations of endovascular treatment for a cerebral Aneurysm using a patient-specific vascular silicone modelo. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo) 2013; 53 (5): 347-351

¿Qué?
Preoperative endovascular simulations in cerebral Aneurysm using a patient-specific silicone modelo.

¿Por qué?
Simulaciones son fáciles y helpful para designar a tratamientos de tratamientos y la correcta manipulación de endovascular devices para experimentar sus behavior por treatment actual.

Pulmonary valve stent implantation 2

Armillotta A, Bonhoeffer P, Dubini G, et al. Use of rapid prototyping modelos in the planning of percutaneous Pulmonary valved stent implantation. Proc Inst Mech Eng H 2007; 221 (4): 407-416

¿Qué?
Use of Anatomical modelos for planning of percutaneous Pulmonary valved stent implantation.

¿Por qué?
Allowed the cardiologist s confidence in patient selection, prosthesis fabrication, and final implantation to be significantly improved.

Modelo of a severely calcified aorta

Schmauss D, Schmitz C, Bigdeli AK, et al. Three-dimensional printing of modelos for preoperative planning and simulation of transcatheter valve replacement. Ann Thorac Surg 2012; 93 (2): E31-E33

¿Qué?
Use of three-dimensional printing modelos for preoperative planning of transcatheter valve replacement in a patient with an extreme porcelain aorta.

¿Por qué?
Evaluate the potential effects of these constructivo for previous surgical planning and simulation of the transcatheter valve replacement.

Aórtica stent implantation

Biglino G, Verschueren P, Zegels R, Taylor AM, Schievano S. Rapid prototyping compliant arterial Phantoms for invitro studies and device testing. J Cardiovasc Magn Resonant 2013; 15: 2

¿Qué?
Use of TangoPlus FullCure 930® is a commercially available rubber-like material that can be used for Polyjet rapid prototyping in the contexto of experimental cardiovascular modelling.

¿Por qué?
The appealing possibility of printing modelos of non-uniform wall thickness, resembling more closely certain Physiological scenarios.

Physiology simulation: aorta

Canstein C, Cachot P, Fausto A, et al. 3D MR flow analysis in realistic rapid-prototyping modelo systems of the Thoracic aorta: comparison with in vivo fecha and computational fluido dynamics in Identical vessel geometrías. Magn Resonant Med 2008; 59 (3): 535-546.

¿Qué?
Rapid prototyping was used to transform aórtica geometrías as measured by contraste-enhanced MR angiography into realistic vascular modelos with large Anatomical coverage.

¿Por qué?
Local vascular anatomía y función en el mundo humano es de alto interés para la diagnosis y tratamiento de cardiovascular disease.

Phsyology simulation: Coronary

MAGMA. 2005 Dec; 18 (6): 288-92. Epub 2005 Dec 21.

¿Qué?
Conversion of Thoracic aórtica vasculature as measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging into real physical replica.

¿Por qué?
Rapid vessel prototyping permits the creation of a concrete sólido replica of a patient s vascular anatomy.

Physology simulation: cerebrovascular

Ionita CN, Mokin M, Varble N, et al. Challenges and limitations of patient-specific vascular phantom fabrication using 3D Polyjet printing. In: Molthen RC, Weaver JB, eds. Proceedings of SPIE: medical imaging 2014-Biomedical applications in molecular, structural, and functional imaging. Quiere 9038. Bellingham, Wash: SPIE, 2014; 90380M

¿Qué?
Análisis Challenges and limitaciones de sufriente-specifico vascular phantom fabrication using 3D Polyjet printing.

¿Por qué?
Anatomic modelos, for medical device testing and Physiological condition evaluation.

Fabrication of cardiac tissue

Gaetani R, Doevendans PA, Metz CH, et al. Cardiac tissue engineering using tissue printing technology and human cardiac progenitor cells. Biomateriales 2012; 33 (6): 1782-1790

¿Qué?
Combination of tissue printing technology (TP), human cardiac-derived cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (hCMPCs) and biomateriales to obtain a construct with cardiogénico potential for in vitro use oro in vivo application.

¿Por qué?
Con esta aproximación, se puede generar en el vitro tissue s homogeneosa distribución de celdas en el scaffold. Printing be used for defined cell delivery, while retaining functional properties.

Training transapical aórtica replacement

Abdel-Sayed P, Kalejs M, von Segesser LK. A new training set-up for trans-apical aórtica valve replacement. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2009; 8 (6): 599-601.

¿Qué?
Build an appropriate artificial model of the heart that can replace the use of animales for surgical training in trans-apical AVR procedures.

¿Por qué?
Trans-apical aórtica valve replacement (AVR) is a new and rapidly growing therapy. However, there are only few training opportunities.

Repair of abdominal aórtico Aneurysm

Wilasrusmee C, Suvikrom J, Suthakorn J, et al. Threedimensional aórtica Aneurysm modelo and endovascular repair: an educational tool for surgical trainees. Int J Angiolo 2008; 17 (3): 129-133

¿Qué?
Three-dimensional (3D) modelos of AAA using a rapid prototyping technique were developed to help surgical trainees learn how to plan for Evar more effectively.

¿Por qué?
The 3D aórtica Aneurysm modelo constructed using the rapid prototipo technique may significantly improve the ability of trainees to properly plan for Evar.

Reemplazo total de cadera

¿Qué?
Preoperative planning of this type of surgical Interventions due to the possibility of preoperative simulation of the inserción of femoral componente into the medular canal with rapid prototipo.

¿Por qué?
One of the problems we come across in our practice is related to the patients with very disturbed anatomy structures of the hip joint due to the incompatibilidad between standard implantes and host bone.

Faur C, Crainic N, Sticlaru C, Oancea C. Rapid prototyping technique in the preoperative planning for total hip arthroplasty with custom femoral componentes. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2013; 125 (5-6): 144-149

acetabular fracture

¿Qué?
The use of medical CT / MRI scanning, three-dimensional reconstrucción, Anatomical modeling, computer-aided design, RP and computer-aided implantation in treating a complejo fracture of acetabulum, calcaneum, and medial condyle of femur (Hoffa s fracture).

¿Por qué?
The production of a copy of the fracture oro a deformity in a bone with a complejo geometry.

Bagaria V, Deshpande S, Rasalkar DD, Kuthe A, Paunipagar BK. Use of rapid prototyping and three-dimensional reconstrucción modeling in the management of complejo fracturas. Eur J Radiolaria 2011; 80 (3): 814-820

Acetabular fracture 2

¿Qué?
To evaluate the use of rapid prototyping in the assessment, clasificación and preoperative planning of acetabular fracturas.

¿Por qué?
El complejo three-dimensional anatomy of the pelvis and acetabulum make assessment, clasificación and treatment of fracturas of these structures notoriously difficult.

Hurson C, Tansey A, O'Donnchadha B, Nicholson P, Rice J, McElwain J. Rapid prototyping in the assessment, clasificación and preoperative planning of acetabular fracturas. Injury 2007; 38 (10): 1158/1162

Intraarticular calcaneal fracturas

¿Qué?
Compare the diagnostic performance of stereolithography vs workstation-based three-dimensional (3D) reformations in intra-articular calcaneal fracturas.

¿Por qué?
Based on our results stereolithograms did not prove to be statistically superior to workstation-based 3D reformations. Stereolithograms may still be useful for Teaching Purposes and for surgical planning at a thinking-efficacy level.

Kacl GM, Zanetti M, Amgwerd M, et al. Rapid prototyping (stereolithography) in the management of intra-articular calcaneal fracturas. Eur Radiolaria 1997; 7 (2): 187-191.

Scapula osteochondroma

¿Qué?
A 6 year old girl Presented with a large osteochondroma arising from the scapula. Radiographs, CT and MRI were Performed to ASSESS the lesión and to determine whether the lesión could be Safely resected.

¿Por qué?
The modelo allowed better Anatomical understanding of the lesión and helped bien surgical management.

Tam MD, Laycock SD, Bell D, Chojnowski A. 3-D printout of a DICOM file to aid surgical planning in a 6 year old patient with a large Scapula osteochondroma complicating congenital diaphyseal Aclass. J Radiolaria Case Recibe 2012; 6 (1): 31-37.

Cubitus varus deformity

¿Qué?
The aim of this study was to attempt to increase the accuracy of treatment by use of 3-dimensional (3D) computer-aided design. We Describe a novela method for ensuring an accurate osteotomy method in the treatment of Cubitus varo deformity in teenagers by means of 3D reconstrucción and reverse engineering.

¿Por qué?
Treatment of Cubitus varo deformity from a malunited fracture is a challenge. Anatomically accurate corrección is the key to obtaining good functional outcomes after correctiva osteotomy.

Zhang YZ, Lu S, Chen B, Zhao JM, Liu R, Pei GX. Application of computer-aided design osteotomy template for treatment of Cubitus varo deformity in teenagers: piloto study. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2011; 20 (1): 51-56

Tumores espinales

¿Qué?
Surgical training as a learning process for young surgeons oro for Ewing 's sarcoma in the cervical spine.

¿Por qué?
As a result, it is easier for the surgeon to understand the complexity of the case and plan the approach before año surgical procedure.

Paiva WS, Amorim R, Bezerra DA, Masini M. Aplication of the stereolithography technique in complejo spine surgery. Arq neuropsiquiatra 2007; 65 (2B): 443-445

Pie de charcot

¿Qué?
We depict this method as it pertains to repair of the Charcot foot, it could also be used to plan and practice, oro revise, 3-dimensional surgical Manipulation of other complejo foot deformidad.

¿Por qué?
Charcot foot síndrome (Charcot neuroarthropathy affecting the foot), particularly in its Latter stages, may ponga a significante technical challenge to the surgeon.

Giovinco NA, Dunn SP, Dowling L, et al. A novela combination of printed 3-dimensional anatómico templates and computer-assisted surgical simulation for virtual preoperative planning in Charcot foot reconstrucción. J Foot Ankle Surg 2012; 51 (3): 387-393.

Artroplastia de cadera

¿Qué?
We used specific templates created using a rapid prototyping machine based on the patients 'anatomy, to aid in accurate intraoperative pin colocación.

¿Por qué?
Hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) is a technically demanding operation, requiring both accuracy and precision in placement of the acetabular and femoral componentes. Malalignment of the componente can lead to notching and posible femoral neck fracturas.

Du H, Tian XX, Le TS, et al. Use of patient-specific templates in hip resurfacing arthroplasty: experience from sixteen casas. Int Orthop 2013; 37 (5): 777-782.

Fracturas del radio distal

¿Qué?
Describe a method for computer-assisted distal radius osteotomías in which computer-generated, patient-specific plástico guides are used for intraoperative guidance.

¿Por qué?
This Allows for unique positioning of the guide during surgery. For each planned drill location, a guidance hole is incorporated into the guide. The guides are easy to INTEGRATE into the surgical workflow and minimize the need for intraoperative fluoroscopy for guidance of the procedure.

Du H, Tian XX, Le TS, et al. Use of patient-specific templates in hip resurfacing arthroplasty: experience from sixteen casas. Int Orthop 2013; 37 (5): 777-782.

Osteosarcoma resection and allograft reconstrucción

¿Qué?
Surgical guides (patientspecific instrumentos) for pediatric tibial bone sarcoma resection and allograft reconstrucción a method for decreasing the resection margin width and ensuring that the margins are adequate. This method was developed in the tibia, which is a common site for the most frecuente primary bone sarcomas in children.

¿Por qué?
To ACHIEVE local control of malignos pediatric bone tumores and to provide satisfactory oncological results, adequate resection margins are mandatory. The local recurrence rate is directly related to inappropriate Excision margins.

Bellanova L, Paul L, DOCQUIER PL. Surgical guides (patientspecific instrumentos) for pediatric tibial bone sarcoma resection and allograft reconstrucción. Sarcoma 2013; 2013: 787653

Thoracico kyphoscoliosis

¿Qué?
The procedure and results of posterior modified wedge osteotomy aided by the techniques of computer-aided design-rapid prototyping (CAD-RP) to correct Thoracic deformidad.

¿Por qué?
The corrección of severe Thoracic deformidad is Challenging. However, the usual imaging modalidad are not sufficient for performing the surgery

Yang JC, Ma XY, Lin J, Wu ZH, Zhang K, Yin QS. Personalised modified osteotomy using computer-aided Design- rapid prototyping to correct Thoracic deformidad. Int Orthop 2011; 35 (12): 1827 a 1832

Resection due to bone metastasis

¿Qué?
To presente rapid-prototipo (RP) endoprosthesis replacement after tumor resection in patients with bone metastasis of the upper extremity.

¿Por qué?
An RP endoprosthesis may have significando Advantages when the entire humerus needs to be replaced, oro periarticular sites are involved. This technique offers custom-made endoprosthesis with enough Durability, and in a relatively short production time at reasonable costes which are suitable for Palliative reconstrucción.

Pruksakorn D, Chantarapanich N, Arpornchayanon O, Leerapun T, Sitthiseripratip K, Vatanapatimakul N. Rapidprototype endoprosthesis for Palliative reconstrucción of an upper extremity after resection of bone metastasis. Int J CARS 2015, 10 (3): 343-350.

Femoral-componente

¿Qué?
Custom design is based on a computed Tomography scan of the patient s joint. The proposed design will customize both the articulating surface and the bone-implante interfaz to address the most common problems found with conventional knee-implante componentes.

¿Por qué?
The Longevity of cementless implante componentes is highly dependiente on the initial fit between the bone surface and the implante. The bone-implante interfaz design has Historically been limited by the surgical tools and cutting guides available; and the cost of fabricating custom-designed implante componentes has been prohibitive.

Harrysson OL, Hosni YA, Nayfeh JF. Custom-designed orthopedic implantes evaluated using finite element analysis of patient-specific computed tomography fecha: femoral-componente case study. BMC Musculoskelet Disorder

maxilofaciales defects

¿Qué?
Rapid prototyping was used as a tool for fabrication of the custommade implante.

¿Por qué?
Limited visualization of closed internal structures, influence of surgery on airway, presence of teeth and their relationship with the bone, and interference with Occlusion often make the surgery complejo and unpredictable.

Arora A, Datarkar AN, Borle RM, Rai A, Adwan DG. Custommade implante for maxilofacial defects using rápido prototipo modelos. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2013; 71 (2): E104-E110

Pulmonary carcinoma

¿Qué?
Thoracoscopic Pulmonary segmentectomy was Performed using the fissureless technique simulated by three-dimensional (3D) Pulmonary modelos.

¿Por qué?
The 3D modelo and rapid prototyping provided an accurate Anatomical understanding of the operative field in both casas. We believe that the construction of these modelos is useful for thoracoscopic and other complicated Surg of the chest.

Akiba T, Nakada T, Inagaki T. Simulation of the fissureless technique for thoracoscopic segmentectomy using rapid prototyping. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2015; 21 (1): 84-86

Tumores mediastínicos

¿Qué?
Construction of mediastinal modelos is useful for thoracoscopic surgery and other complicated Surg of the chest diseases.

¿Por qué?
Preoperativo 3-dimensional (2D) imaginando el tumor de mediastinal usando XNUMX-dimensional (XNUMXD) axial computed tomography es sometimes difficult, y una expectativa afirmación del tumor puede ser encountered durante sugerencia.

Akiba T, Nakada T, Inagaki T. A three-dimensional mediastinal modelo created with rapid prototyping in a patient with ectópico thymoma. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2015, 21 (1): 87-89.

La broncoscopia

¿Qué?
Rapid prototyping (RP) technology to create anatomically congruente modelos of tracheo-bronchial tree for teaching relevante bronchoscopic anatomy.

¿Por qué?
RP can be successfully used to create anatomically accurate modelos from imaging studies. There is potential for RP to become a valuable educational tool in the future.

. Bustamante S, Bose S, Bishop P, Klatte R, Norris F. Novel application of rapid prototyping for simulation of bronchoscopic anatomy. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2014 28; 4 (1134): 1137 a XNUMX.

Respiratory flow

¿Qué?
Three-dimensional image reconstrucción by volume rendering and rapid prototyping has made it posible tono visualice anatómico structures in three dimensiones for interventional planning and academic research.

¿Por qué?
Using the rapid-prototipo modelo with hyperpolarized helium-3 magnético resonance imaging show el valor de este modelo for flow phantom studies.

Giesel FL, Mehndiratta A, von Tengger-Kobligk H, et al. Rapid prototyping raw modelos on the basis of high resolution computed tomography lung fecha for respiratory flow dynamics. Acad Radiolaria 2009; 16 (4): 495-498

congenital tracheomalacia

¿Qué?
In an niño with tracheobronchomalacia, we implanted a customized, bioresorbable tracheal splint, created with a computer-aided design based on a computed tomographic image of the patient s airway and fabricated with the use of laser-based three-dimensional printing, to treat this life -threatening condition

¿Por qué?
We reasoned that the localized tracheobronchomalacia was the cause of this Physiological abnormality and made a custom-designed and custom-fabricated resorbable airway splint.

Zöpf DA, Hollister SJ, Nelson ME, ohyea RG, Green GE. Bioresorbable airway splint created with a three-dimensional printer. N Engl J Med 2013; 368 (21): 2043 a 2045.

Complejo congenital abnormalities

Schievano S, Sebire NJ, Robertson NJ, Taylor AM, Thayyil S. Reconstrucción of fetal and niño anatomy using rapid prototyping of post-mortem MR images. Insights Imaging 2010; 1 (4): 281-286.

¿Qué?
Postmortem MR imaging to fabricate 3D-printed modelos of 11 fetos and niños and envisioned, among other applications, better understanding of complejo congenital abnormalities and opportunities for intrauterine diagnosis and management and more appropriate counseling of parientes after pregnancy termination.

¿Por qué?
The lack of human Anatomical material donated for research and training has resulted in issues for medical training

Conjoined twins, skeletal and central nervous system abnormalities, and facial and Thoracic defects.

Werner H, dos Santos JR, Fontes R, et al. Additive manufacturing modelos of fetos built from three-dimensional Ultrasound, magnético resonance imaging and computed tomography scan fecha. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010; 36 (3): 355-361.

¿Qué?
To generate physical fetal modelos using images obtained by three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS), magnético resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) to guide additive manufacturing technology. They were remarkably similar to the postnatal appearance of the Aborted feto oro newborn baby, especially in casas with pathology.

¿Por qué?
The use of 3DUS, MRI and CT may improve our understanding of fetal Anatomical characteristics, and these technologies can be used for educational Purposes and como forma for parientes to visualice their unborn baby.

vaginal dilatorio

Hakim, Julie, et al. "Innovative Use of 3D Printers in Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology." Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology 29.2 (2016): 205-206.

¿Qué?
We have successfully shown that 3DP can be used to Produce vaginal dilatorio (VD) and vaginal stents (VS) in adulto and Piglet Porcine vaginal tratara.

¿Por qué?
Currently available VS and VD exist only in adulto sizes that can not be used Safely oro Comfortably in the pediatrics population.

neonatal head

¿Qué?
A neonatal head phantom, comprising of an elipsoidal geometry and including a circular aperture for simulating the fontanela was designed and fabricated,

¿Por qué?
Allow an objective assessment of thermal rise in tissues during trans-craneal ultrasonic scanning of pre-term neonatos.

Gatto, Matteo, et al. "Three-Dimensional Printing (3DP) of neonatal head phantom for Ultrasound: Thermocouple embedding and simulation of bone." Medical engineering & physics 34.7 (2012): 929-937.

maternal bonding

¿Qué?
3D-printed modelos of two fetos with facial Cleft.

¿Por qué?
3D-printed modelos can be a useful addition to patient education and can Positively impact maternal-fetal bonding.

Coté, John J., Brittany Thomas, and Joseph Marvin. "Improved maternal bonding with the use of 3D-printed modelos in the setting of a facial cleft." Journal of 3D printing in medicine 2.3 (2018): 97-102.

Cerebrovascular surgery in children

¿Qué?
3D printed modelos of pediatric cerebrovascular lesiones

¿Por qué?
Despite the availability of multiplanar imaging, understanding relational 3D anatomy for complejo cerebrovascular lesiones can be difficult. 3D printing modelos provide an instantaneous visualization of lesional anatomy from all perspectivas, with the added ability to simulate operative approaches with tactile feedback. The modelo accuracy using intraprocedural assessment and potential benefit through shortener operative time.

Weinstock, Peter, et al. "Optimizing cerebrovascular surgical and endovascular procedures in children vía Personalized 3D printing." Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics 16.5 (2015): 584-589.

Pediatric Bronchoscopy

¿Qué?
A Realistic 3D-Printed Tracheobronchial Tree Modelo from a 1-Year-Old Girl for Pediatric Bronchoscopy Training. Another interesting AM application reported is the prenatal evaluation of complejo patient-specific fetal anatomy that was subsequently used to manage complejo perinatal airway anomalías.

¿Por qué?
Because the tracheobronchial tree modelos used for training to date were Scaled for adulto Lungs, and there is a significante Variation between adulto Lungs and the Lungs of a neonate oro an niño.

Hornung A., Kumpf M., Baden W., Tsiflikas I., Hofbeck M., Sieverding L. Realistic 3D-Printed Tracheobronchial Tree Modelo from a 1-Year-Old Girl for Pediatric Bronchoscopy Training. Respiración. 2017; 93: 293-295.

Aberrante Facial Anatomy

¿Qué?
Evaluation of complejo patient-specific fetal anatomy and facilitate the Multidisciplinary approach to perinatal management of complejo airway anomalías.

¿Por qué?
The neonate was born with a protuberante cleft lip and Palate deformity, without airway obstruction, as Predicted by the patient-specific modelo. Anatomical modelo, in this case, prevented the surgeons from doing año unnecessary surgical procedure, and the child was discharged without need for airway intervention.

VanKoevering KK, Morrison RJ, Prabhu SP, Torres MFL, Mychaliska GB, Treadwell MC, Hollister SJ, Green GE antenatal three-dimensional printing of aberrante facial anatomy. Pediatrics. 2015, 136: e1382-e1385. doi: 10.1542 / peds.2015-1062.

Infante head impact

¿Qué?
Developed and validated a physical modelo to investigate the Biomechanics of niño head impact, which is the single most common cause of death oro permanente disability from injury in children.

¿Por qué?
Pediatric head injury cause and effect is poorly understood, as the only source of fecha for such studies have been niño postmortem human surrogates (PMHS).

Jones M., Darwall D., Khalid G., Prabhu R., Kemp A., Arthurs O., Theobald P. Development and validation of a physical modelo to investigate the Biomechanics of niño head impact. Forens. Sci. Int. 2017; 276: 111-119.

Displasia de cadera

¿Qué?
Surgical procedure for older children with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH).

¿Por qué?
The use of 3D-printed navigation templates resulted in reduced operation time, decreased intraoperative X-ray exposure and surgical risk, reduced epiphysis damage, as well as better operative guidance and surgical precisión.

Zheng P., Xu P., Yao Q., Tang K., Lou Y. 3D-printed navigation template in proximal femoral osteotomy for older children with developmental dysplasia of the hip. Sci. Rep. 2017; 7: 44993

uveal melanomas

Furdová, Alena, et al. "Early experiences of planning stereotactic radiosurgery using 3D printed modelos of eyes with uveal melanomas." Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, NZ) 11 (2017): 267.

¿Qué?
The objective of this study was to determine the use of 3D printed modelo of an eye with intraocular tumor for linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery.

¿Por qué?
The 3D printed modelo of eye with tumor was helpful in planning the process to ACHIEVE the optimal scheme for irradiation which requires high accuracy of defining the targeted tumor mass and critical structures.

entrenamiento quirúrgico

Scawn, Richard L., et al. "Customised 3D printing: an innovative training tool for the next generation of orbital surgeons." Orbit34.4 (2015): 216-219.

¿Qué?
3D orbit modelos for use in orbital surgical training using 3D printing technology.

¿Por qué?
These modelos allow trainee surgeons to perform 'wet-lab' orbital decompressions and simulate upcoming Surg donde orbital modelos that replicate a patient s bulto anatomy.

Secondary Orbital reconstrucción

Callahan, Alison B., et al. "Low-cost 3D printing orbital implante templates in secondary orbital reconstrucción." Ophthalmic plástico and reconstructive surgery 33.5 (2017): 376-380

¿Qué?
Feasibility and accessibility of low-cost, independiente use of 3D printing technology to fashion patient-specific implantes in orbital reconstrucción.

¿Por qué?
The authors report the technique of low-cost 3D printing of orbital implante templates used in complejo, often secondary, orbital reconstrucción.

smartphone fundoscopy

¿Qué?
Simple technique of fundus photography in human and rabbit eyes using smartphone.

¿Por qué?
An inexpensive app for the smartphone, and instrumentos that are readily available in an Ophthalmic practice.

bioartificial liver

Wang X, Yan Y, Zhang R. Rapid prototyping as a tool for manufacturing bioartificial liver. Trends Biotechnol 2007; 25 (11): 505-513.

¿Qué?
A case study about the Viability in the creation of a artificial liver using Rapid prototyping (RP) technologies.

¿Por qué?
These technologies might eventually enable the manufacture of human liver to create functional sustitutas for treating liver failure oro dysfunctionalit. However, the approaches used Actualmente face many challenges, such as the complejo branched vascular and bile ductular systems and the variety of cell types, matrices and regulatory factores involved in liver development.

Cirugia de trasplante de higado

Zein NN, Hanouneh IA, Bishop PD, et al. Three-dimensional print of a liver for preoperative planning in living donor liver Transplantation. Liver Transplant 2013; 19 (12): 1304 a 1310.

¿Qué?
Three-dimensional printed modelos of the liver plus vascular and biliary structures assisted in preoperative planning and intraoperative orientation in three living-donor liver transplant Surg. Using Standardized preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative assessments, it is demonstrated Identical Anatomical and Geometrical landmarks in the 3D-printed modelos and native liver.

¿Por qué?
Ensuring the safety of Donors and recipientes is critical. The preoperative identification of the vascular and biliary tract anatomy with 3-dimensional (3D) printing may allow better preoperative surgical planning, AVERT unnecessary surgery in patients with potentially unsuitable anatomy, and thereby decrease the Complications of liver transplant surgery.

Liver transplante surgery 2

Zein, Nizar N., et al. "Three-dimensional print of a liver for preoperative planning in living donor liver Transplantation." Liver Transplantation 19.12 (2013): 1304-1310

¿Qué?
The preoperative identification of the vascular and biliary tract anatomy with 3-dimensional (3D) printing.

¿Por qué?
Better preoperative surgical planning.

renal tumor

¿Qué?
3D printed the kidney plus a renal tumor in five patients who were candidatas for partial nephrectomy .to construct high-fidelity, patient customized, physical, 3-dimensional (3D) modelos of renal unidos with enhancing renal lesiones identified donde cross-sectional imaging.

¿Por qué?
Aid patients, trainees, and clinicians in their comprehension, characterization, localization, and extirpation of suspicious renal masas.

Silberstein JL, Maddox MM, Dorsey P, Feibus A, Thomas R, Lee BR. Physical modelos of renal malignancies using standard cross-sectional imaging and 3-dimensional printers: piloto study. Urology 2014; 84 (2): 268-272.

Laparoscópico partial nephrectomy

¿Qué?
Objetivas To investigate the impact of three-dimensional (3D) printing on the surgical planning, potential of training and patients 'comprehension of minimally invasive surgery for renal tumores.

¿Por qué?
Generating kidney modelos of T1N0M0 tumores with 3D printing are feasible with refinements to be Performed. Face and content validity was obtained when those modelos were Presented to experienced urologists for making practical planning and training. Understanding of the disease and procedure from patients were well appreciated with this novela technology.

Zhang, Y., Ge, HW, Li, NC, Yu, CF, Guo, HF, Jin, SH, ... & Na, yq (2016). Evaluation of three-dimensional printing for Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy of renal tumores: a preliminary report. World journal of Urology, 34 (4), 533-537.

Trasplante renal pediátrico

¿Qué?
The authors investigated a novela application of patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) printing, tono ENHANCE preoperative, Multidisciplinary planning in complejo, living-donor pediatric renal Transplantation.

¿Por qué?
We report the new and safe integration of patient-specific 3D printing into complejo pediatric renal Transplantation. This technique Enhancer surgical planning and can inform operative feasibility in those casas which would otherwise be Uncertain.

Chandak, P., Byrne, N., Coleman, A., Karunanithy, N., Carmichael, J., Marks, SD, ... & Mamode, N. (2019). Patient-specific 3D printing: a novel technique for complejo pediatric renal Transplantation. Annals of surgery, 269 (2), E18-E23.

Training percutaneous nephrolithotomy

¿Qué?
A training modelo to improve technique and understanding of renal anatomy could improve Complications related to renal puncture; however, no modelo Actualmente exists for residente training.

¿Por qué?
Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is a popular method to remove kidney stones; however, broader use by the urológicos community has been hampered by the Morbidity associated with needle puncture to gain access to the renal calix (bleeding, pneumothorax, hydrothorax, inadvertido colon injury).

Bruyère F, Leroux C, Brunereau L, Lermusiaux P. Rapid prototyping modelo for percutaneous nephrolithotomy training. J Endourol 2008; 22 (1): 91-96

ureteral stents

¿Qué?
One-way antirreflujo valvas for ureteral stents.

¿Por qué?
The 3D printing take advantage of an effective miniaturization, and high level of precision and reproducibility to generate one-way valvas for ureteral stents to reduce Retrograde flow of Urine.

Park, C.-J. et al. Anti-Reflujo ureteral Stent with Polymeric Flap Valve Using Three-Dimensional Printing: An In Vitro Study. J. Endourol. 29, 1-6 (2015).

Trócares for Laparoscopic

¿Qué?
Trócares for Laparoscopic surgery have also been Manufactured by 3D printing to test the utility of printed surgical equipment to reduce waste and solve potential issues of instrumentos not being available when needed.

¿Por qué?
In this piloto study, 3D printing of ureteral stents and trócares is feasible, and these devices can be deployed in the Porcine and cadaver modelos. Three-dimensional printing is rapidly Advancing and may be clinically viable in the future.

del Junco, M. et al. Development and initial Porcine and cadaver experience with three-dimensional printing of Endoscopic and Laparoscopic equipment. J. Endourol. 29, 58-62 (2015).

Uretra treatment scaffolds

¿Qué?
3D printing Allows to construct onto schaffold in which functional cells of the target organ are printed in a second overlying layerthe. These scaffold should eventually degrade and be replaced by extracelular matrix proteins Produced by the functional cells.

¿Por qué?
Local treatment administration.

Tratamiento del cáncer de piel

¿Qué?
The use of a customized radiation shield that combines tissue-equivalente bolus material with protective material addresses these issues using rapid prototyping to design and fabricate año extraoral radiation shield. This innovative application provides an expediente, Standardized approach for Delivering radiotherapy to the face, which is not only more comfortable for the patient, but Allows more precise treatment delivery.

¿Por qué?
Radiation therapy for the treatment of head and neck skin cancer pones challenges because of the inherently uneven tissue Topography of the face and the need to protect arredores unaffected tissues.

Printed skin tissue

¿Qué?
Flexible automated on-demand platform for the free-form fabrication of complejo living arquitecturas

¿Por qué?
3D bioprinting offers several Advantages in terms of shape- and form Retention, flexibility, reproducibility, and high culture throughput. Cuenta con broad range of applications in transdermal and topical formulación discovery, dermal toxicity studies, and in designing autologous Grafts for wound healing.

Complete skin modelo

¿Qué?
The focos of the present study is to demonstrate the Capability of a newly developed ink formulación and the use of an open source printer, for the production of a really complete skin modelo.

¿Por qué?
Organ in vitro synthesis is one of the last bottleneck between tissue engineering and Transplantation of synthetic órganos. Bioprinting has prueban its capacity to Produce 3D objects Composed of living cells but highly organized tissues such as hoja thickness skin (dermis + epidermis) are rarely attained.

epidermal Electronics

¿Qué?
Multifunctional epidermal Electronics Printed Directly onto the Skin. Materiales and designs are Presented for electronics and sensores that can be conformally and robustly integrated onto the surface of the skin.

¿Por qué?
A multifunctional device of this type can recuerdo various Physiological signals relevant to health and wellness. This class of technology ofrece capabilities in biocompatible, non-invasive measurement that lie beyond those available with conventional, point-contact electrodo interfaces to the skin.

Compliance for pediátrico sufrientes

¿Qué?
Since the printer software Allows the creation of shapes with equivalente volume, tablets of different shape but containing the same dose, can be printed.

¿Por qué?
Printing tablets in different shapes and colores to the liking of the child is expected to increase compliance for pediatric. It is also importante to note that the shape of the tablet affects many other attributes including the Disintegration and rate of dissolution oro rate of drug release.

Sanderson K. 3D printing: The future of manufacturing medicine.

Local drog delivery in catheter and devices

¿Qué?
Medical implantes and devices, such as stents and catheters, are treated with active solutions oro suspensiones for local drug delivery, usually by coating oro spray-coating techniques.

¿Por qué?
3D printing offers increased efficiency, spatial and volume control para la treatment process.

Khan W, Farah S, Dombes AJ. Drug eluting stents: developments and current status. J Control Release 2012; 161: 703-12.

SPRITAM levetiracetam

¿Qué?
SPRITAM®, an FDA-Approved 3D-printed drug, has a unitary Porou structure Produced by a 3D printing process that bind powders without compresión. This structure Allows tablets with up to 1000 mg of levetiracetam to disintegrate within seconds when taken with a sip of water.

¿Por qué?
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Approved Aprecia Pharmaceuticals Company s 3D-printed SPRITAM levetiracetam for oral use in treating Epileptic seizures recently. The prospect of tailor-made drugs that are customized tono individual patient need.

Melocchi A., Parietti F., Maroni A., Foppolo A., Gazzaniga A., Zema L. Hot-melt Extruded filamentos based on pharmaceutical grade Polymers for 3D printing by fused deposition modeling. Int. J. Pharm. 2016; 509: 255-263.

Levofloxacina

¿Qué?
A 3D printing Monolithic implantes of levofloxacino.

¿Por qué?
The printed implantes showed more Porou infrastructure than those Prepared by compresión; thus, the drug release from the printed implante showed faster and slightly higher burst release than the compressed dosage form18. The implantes printed with an inner drug reservoir and inner and outer drug layers were able to show Pulsed and bimodal drug release.

EB Souto, JC Campos, SC Filho, MC Teixeira, C. Martins-Gomes, A. Zielinska, C. Carbone, AM Silva. (2019) 3D printing in the design of pharmaceutical dosage forms. Pharmaceutical Development and Technology 24: 8, pages 1044 a 1053.

Dexamethasone-21- phosphate disodium salto

¿Qué?
A novela extrusion printing system was used to create drug delivery structures where dexamethasone-21-phosphate disodium salto (Dex21P) was Encapsulated within a biodegradable polymer (PLGA) and water soluble poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) configurations

¿Por qué?
This approach Clearly demonstrates that the extrusion printing technique provides a facile and Versatile approach to fabrication of novel drug delivery platforms.

Rattanakit P, Moulton SE, Santiago KS, et al. Extrusion printedpolymer structures: a facile and Versatile approach to tailoreddrug delivery platforms. Int J Pharm 2012; 422: 254-63.

MOST relevante STAKEHOLDERS

Melting of hard filamentos

Justine Garcia1, Zhili Yang1, Rosario Mongrain1, Richard L Leask2, Kevin Lachapelle3

Filamentos are melted in fused deposition modelling (FDM) then Injected through a nozzle to a bed while cooling and solidifying during extrusion. These printers are inexpensive and fast, but are limited to rígido material. FDM needs a scaffold oro bed to support the object during the printing.

Liquid solidification

Justine Garcia1, Zhili Yang1, Rosario Mongrain1, Richard L Leask2, Kevin Lachapelle3

SLA is the oldest method which contains líquido in a do solidified with an ultraviolet (UV) laser controlled by lenses and mirror reflection, while a building platform is moved down for a layer-by-layer fabrication. A lattice structure is created to support the object.

Justine Garcia1, Zhili Yang1, Rosario Mongrain1, Richard L Leask2, Kevin Lachapelle3

PJ usas jets of liquid to build up thin layers of liquid before UV Curing by sliding the head in the x and y axes then a moving platform for the z axis to build up successive layers. PJ is suitable for a wide range of coloured materiales with specific properties (eg, rubber-like material).

Powder solidification

Justine Garcia1, Zhili Yang1, Rosario Mongrain1, Richard L Leask2, Kevin Lachapelle3

SLS usas a láser to create the surface of an object by Sintering a powder. When a layer is done, the build plate is stepping down and covered with a new layer of powder using rollers to keep a constante thickness. At the end of the process, ajo powder is removed with compressed air and recycled. A wide range of materiales are provided for SLS and no scaffold oro apoyo material is required since the unsintered powder provides support of the object during the 3D printing. 

Justine Garcia1, Zhili Yang1, Rosario Mongrain1, Richard L Leask2, Kevin Lachapelle3

BJ has a platform covered with powder which is moved down while being solidified with a selective Spraying of liquid binder; thus, no apoyo material is needed for the fabrication of the object. This technology offers a wide range of materiales as faro as a powder can be combined with a líquido with enough viscosity to form droplets38. In addition, mechanical properties of the structures obtained by BJ in medical simulation are generally tuned by postprocessing techniques, such as drying and / or heating. Both have an impact on the mechanical properties of

Software Compañía liga
Mimic Materialise liga
3D-Doctor Able Software Corp liga
Dentro de la medicina AutoDesk liga
Estudio de diseño médico Anatomage liga
Osa 3D conceptualizar liga
D2P Sistemas 3D liga
Cine 4D Maxon liga
Meshmixer (free) OsiriX liga

Rigid materiales

3D Printing of Bone / Australianscinece.com

Human buenas are the easiest biological tissues to reproduce by 3D printing as the majority of the materiales are rígido. The most common option remains acrylonitrile butadiene Styrene (ABS) by FDM but powders of plaster and hydroquinone were also used by BJ, as well as a mix of polyamide with glass beads by SLS.

ABS is the same plástico used in water pipe of mosto hombre and is the most affordable material in 3D printing. It has provee to be an appropriate bone substitute with good visual and háptica renderings for practising the drilling with minimised coste, despite the softness of the material.

flexible materiales

Guía definitiva sobre distintos filamentos para impresión 3D / Impresoras3D.com

Most of the 3D printing materiales presente en lack of realism to mimic adequately a soft human biological tissue; thus, post processing might be required to soft printed structures. For instance, cartilaginous tissues, for tumours in the contexto of surgical simulation, arterias to practise transcatheter valve Replacements, as well as hepático segmento and hearts

The common techniques to Produce this kind of structures are BJ, SLA and PJ (both techniques are Previously explained).

Printing with multiple materiales

3D Printing with Multiple Materials and Colores / engineering.com

Multimaterial composites may be the future of 3D printed modelos since none of the current available materiales can mimic elástico and biological tissues. Hence, printing materiales containing fibras to control adequately the mechanical behaviour of the modelo are being explored. Mechanical testing can be Performed to analyse the biomechanical response of the human tissue by cutting, compressing oro tearing aparte the material. In this way, multi-material composites may be created based on the capacity of selected materiales to mimic the mechanical properties of human tissue.

Empresas Actividad País sitio web de enlace
Órganovo Liver Tissue for medicine toxicity testing USA liga
BioBots Desktop bioprinters USA liga
Cyfuse biomédico Desktop bioprinters USA liga
Soluciones de bioimpresión 3D Bioprinting human órganos Rusia liga
Aspect Biosystems Lab-on-a-Printer platform Canadá liga
Materialize NV Foftware and services Bélgica liga
Rokita Desktop printers Corea del Sur liga
Stratasys Impresoras 3D Israel liga
MedPrin Human tissue repair products Alemania liga
Formlabs Impresoras 3D USA liga
Institución País Relevante activity liga
MIT USA Entrega de medicamentos (información) Devices and Tissue Engineering (información) liga
Pennsylvania State University USA cartilage plate (información) liga
Wake Forest University USA Ears, buenas and hombros (información) liga
Universidad de Louisville USA Capilar and hearts (información) liga
Hospital 3DP Speciality País Enlace
St. St. Louis Childrens Hospita Craneofacial, Cardiology, Nephrology, Orthopedics USA Enlace
Hospital General de North Manchester Maxilofacial, Orthopaedic, Anaesthetists England liga
Hospital Tan Tock Seng Foot Care and Limb Singapur liga
Hospital de Niños Nicklaus Human hearts USA liga
Hospital Universitario de Basilea Plataforma basada en la nube Suiza liga
Burdeos University Hospital Kidney tumor removal Francia liga
Hospital Royal Adelaide craneofacial services Australia liga
Hospital de Ottawa cirugía de la mano USA liga

3D printing technology affects virtually all areas of IP law: copyright, patente law, design, law, and even geographical indication. One of the main Concerns about 3D printing is that its use makes it technically posible to copy almost año object, with or without the authorization of those who hold rights in that object.

Estrategias Descripción
Copyright final product Copyright will protect the originality of a work and the creator s right to reproduce it. This means that if copias of an original object are 3D printed without authorization, the creator can obtain relief under copyright law.
Industrial design rights final product Industrial design rights protect an object s ornamental and aesthetic appearance.
Patente final product Patente Protects its technical function. prohibido supplying oro offering to supply the means to use an invención without authorization. The patente owners should be able to seek Redress from third parties for supplying oro offering to supply 3D print filas on the grounds that these are an "essential element of the invención covered by the patente". Intellectual Property Code of France (Artículo L 613-4).
 Three-dimensional trademark final product Three-dimensional trademark Allows creators to distinguish their products from those of their competidores (and Allows consumers to identify its source).
Copyright digital file Copyright de la etiqueta digital puede protegerse contra el copyright práva en el mismo modo que el software es. el autor de la fila digital que se reproduce sin authorización puede claim a la moral en el camino y la authorship se calla en cuestión.

Measures to Curb Unauthorized use

mida 1 Para marcar un objeto y se asocia 3D print file with unique identification to monitor use.
Masure 2 Set up a legal offering of descargable 3D print filas oro 3D-printed objects through a cloud-based product innovation platform.
Patente and litigation trends for 3D printing technologies - IPlytics GmbH - IP analytics / Tim Pohlmann
Patente and litigation trends for 3D printing technologies - IPlytics GmbH - IP analytics / Tim Pohlmann
Patente and litigation trends for 3D printing technologies - IPlytics GmbH - IP analytics / Tim Pohlmann
Edu Soler

Science, healthcare and business are the three pillars that drive me Nowadays. I love to engage new people in the adventure of healthcare innovation and always keep on learning from them. I am highly motivated with my participation in performing teams worldwide.

All stories by: Edu Soler

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