Kidney transplant is the placement of a healthy kidney from a donor that supplements the function of the diseased kidneys.
Types of kidney transplant
Depending on where the body came from:
Living donor: voluntary donation
- between genetically identical individuals (no risk of rejection)
- between individuals with a kinship or affective relationship
- no kinship relationship: cross transplant
- altruistic donor: "the good Samaritan"
- Deceased donor: family members authorize the donation.
Depending on the place of implantation in the receiver:
- Orthotopic: the new kidney takes the same place as the damaged one, the damaged one is removed and the new organ is placed.
Heterotopic: the new organ occupies a different place than the damaged organ. The diseased kidneys are not removed and the donor is implanted in the lower abdomen of the recipient.
Advantages of kidney transplantation
- Better quality of life and results.
- Recovery of kidney function in most cases.
- It can be performed without dialysis (live donor TR, pre-HD carcass TR).
- No vascular / peritoneal access required.
- Preservation of health.
- Improvements in the emotional, social and work environment.
Disadvantages of kidney transplantation
- Needs major surgery.
- There is a risk of surgical complications.
- There is a risk of rejection.
- You should follow life-long immunosuppressive treatment.
Side effects of medication (lower defenses).
Who can be a donor?
- People with great emotional bond
- Altruistic donor.
Requirements to be a living donor
- Free and altruistic donation.
- Be of age.
- Have a good state of health.
Blood group compatibility, otherwise there is an alternative to:
- TR ABO incompatible
- Donor exchange
- Multidisciplinary evaluation: nephrologist, urologist, psychologist, etc.
- Authorization of the hospital center ethics committee and the civil registry.